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Patient Consultation



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Welcome to Luna, esteemed providers!


As you join our dedicated community, you're aligning with a team committed to pioneering the frontiers of therapeutic care. Here at Luna, we deeply value the profound impact of ketamine therapy, a modality that is reshaping the landscape of mental health and chronic pain management. With its unique pharmacological properties and transformative potential, ketamine therapy offers an avenue of hope for many who have found little relief elsewhere. For you, as a provider, this means an opportunity to harness cutting-edge treatments, to innovate in patient care, and to contribute to a continually evolving field. We're thrilled to have you with us, bringing your expertise, insights, and the shared goal of enhancing patient outcomes. Welcome to a journey of discovery, collaboration, and profound healing at Luna.

Learn About Ketamine

Ketamine, initially developed in the 1960s, has been primarily used as an anesthetic and analgesic. Its use in medicine has expanded significantly due to its rapid-acting antidepressant properties, especially for those with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and other mental health conditions.


Mechanism of Action

Ketamine's mechanism of action is multifaceted, distinguishing it from traditional antidepressants which often target the monoaminergic system. Ketamine primarily acts as an antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a type of glutamate receptor. By blocking these receptors, ketamine induces an increase in glutamate release, leading to activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. This AMPA receptor activation then results in increased BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) release and activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. The end result is enhanced synaptic plasticity in the brain, which is believed to underpin ketamine's rapid antidepressant effects.



When administered, ketamine is rapidly distributed, metabolized, and excreted. It undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism. The primary pathway is N-demethylation to norketamine, mainly by CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. Norketamine also has psychoactive properties, though weaker than ketamine. The half-life of ketamine is approximately 2-3 hours in adults. It's excreted primarily in the urine.



Ketamine exerts a dose-dependent effect on mood, perception, and cognition. At low doses, it may elicit mood elevation and psychotomimetic effects, whereas at higher doses, it can lead to dissociation from the environment and one's self, and even complete anesthesia.


Efficacy in Treating Mental Health Conditions

1. Depression:

Numerous studies have documented the rapid and robust antidepressant effects of ketamine in individuals with TRD. These effects are often noticeable within hours and can last for a week or longer from a single dose.

Reference: Zarate Jr, C. A., Singh, J. B., Carlson, P. J., Brutsche, N. E., Ameli, R., Luckenbaugh, D. A., ... & Manji, H. K. (2006). A randomized trial of an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist in treatment-resistant major depression. *Archives of general psychiatry*, 63(8), 856-864.


2. PTSD:

Ketamine has shown potential in rapidly reducing symptoms of PTSD.


Reference: Feder, A., Parides, M. K., Murrough, J. W., Perez, A. M., Morgan, J. E., Saxena, S., ... & Charney, D. S. (2014). Efficacy of intravenous ketamine for treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized clinical trial. *JAMA psychiatry*, 71(6), 681-688.


3. OCD:

Ketamine has shown promise in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

 Reference: Rodriguez, C. I., Kegeles, L. S., Levinson, A., Ogden, R. T., Mao, X., Milak, M. S., ... & Shungu, D. C. (2013). Randomized controlled crossover trial of ketamine in obsessive-compulsive disorder: proof-of-concept. *Neuropsychopharmacology*, 38(12), 2475-2483.


While ketamine presents as a promising therapeutic option, its use should be guided by careful clinical consideration. There's a need for further exploration regarding optimal dosing, long-term efficacy, potential side effects, and the mechanisms behind its profound effects.

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As we navigate the evolving landscape of ketamine therapy and its application in various therapeutic contexts, we understand that questions and uncertainties may arise. Please know that our team is here to assist and guide you. Should you have any inquiries, concerns, or require clarification regarding ketamine therapy, do not hesitate to reach out to us. Our commitment is to ensure that you're equipped with the knowledge and resources necessary to provide the best care for your patients. We value the trust you place in us and look forward to fostering a collaborative and informed approach to this groundbreaking treatment.

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